APA Style

Note that these responses are not official additions to the questions; only explanations of what is required to answer them. Be sure you read the question and understand it fully before answering. Consult the APA Manual or the links below for more information.


When referencing the handout for Miles and Snow Organizational Types that you gave us, should I use the reference at the end of the handout, or should I use you as the reference?

You should reference what you actually read - in this case, my handout, not the original source. See the sample.

Case Handouts:

I have seen the sample APA-style reference on your website for previously published case studies that were republished in your textbook; however, I not clear about referencing previously published cases that we receive from you as handouts.

See the information on the case as to where it came from, who the author is, etc. If it is from a print publication, like a journal, use that format. If it has come from the web, use the APA format for referencing information from the Internet, including the web address, etc.

Placement of references in text:

If I am paraphrasing three or four sentences from source material, do I place my citation at the end of a paragraph, at the end of a series of paraphrased ideas, or at the end of each sentence (though all ideas are from the same source)?

The purpose of references in the text is to clearly indicate what facts and ideas came from which sources. Clarity is most important, rather than a particular set of rules. If an entire paragraph is from one source (and there are no personal opinions of yours interspersed with that paragraph), then the reference comes at the end of the paragraph.

If, on the other hand, there is a fact from an outside source, then a personal opinion, then a fact, it would require individual referencing after each fact which would indicate that the opinion in the middle did not come from that source.

See also:
        APA Information on Electronic Sources - Includes examples and tutorial on how to write a correct reference.
        Sample APA References - STU course specific examples.

- 08/14/01 last updated 07/13/03 -


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Copyright 2001-2003 Raymond S. Kulzick - Last modified: September 13, 2008